In the 2011 book “Physics of the Future”, author Michio Kaku predicted that Moore’s Law will end and this would turn Silicon Valley into rust if an alternative and suitable replacement for silicon was not found. For the last 4 decades, Moore’s Law came about to represent unstoppable technological progress. At its heart was the observation that the number of transistors fabricated onto a chip would double every two years and that the cost would also fall off at a similar rate. It is very important to note that this law is an observation and not an actual physical or natural law. However, as of 2010 the update to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors has shown growth slowing by 2013 after which densities are going to double only every three years. We are hitting the limits of the number of electrons that can be fit in a given area.
One option to overcome this limitation is to create quantum computers that will take advantage of the quantum character of molecules to perform the processing tasks of a conventional computer. Quantum computers could very possibly one day be able to replace silicon chips, just as the transistor replaced vacuum tube.